Cultures and Religions

Ogni Cultura possiede le proprie norme per cio' che sia socialmente accettabile

Tuesday, April 5, 2011

Al Andalus (Andalusia) bajo el dominio Arabe

Cuando se habla de cultura de España es imposible no mencionar lo que el populo árabe nos dejo a través de los varios siglos de la conquista. La percepción de la cultura árabe, su peculiaridades, y su lujosa lengua, son solamente unos particulares de lo que constituye el “harem” socio-cultural de la España de hoy.   Siendo yo antropólogo, siento la necesidad de clarificar mas este tema, bajo un estudio profundo de las culturas y eventos históricos que van a interesar la Península Ibérica en estos años (desde el 711, al 1492), y de los elementos que van a caracterizar la formación de una nueva y compleja sociedad.

Vamos a examinar como los cristianos y musulmanes aprenderán a vivir bajo ciertas condiciones de tolerancia y respecto de las ideas religiosas y el uso de las instituciones públicas, seguido por la venida de una floritura de las escuelas filosóficas, científicas, de arte, etc. Un esplendor que va a desaparecer con el tiempo, en seguida a interminables conflictos, persecuciones, y aboliciones culturales y religiosas, que serán la primera explicación de martirios, torturas, y años de desperdicio de sangre inocente: un caso equitativo será la historia de San Pelagio y Abderramán. Aun que todas estas situaciones van a dar una mala impresión de lo que es la cultura que se afirmo en la Península Ibérica, Al Ándalus llegara a su máximo esplendor, bajo el reino de los califas, comprendiendo un ejemplar sistema de administración, y mejoramientos en el campo económico y social, que van a ofrecer a la vieja región de Hispania la admiración del mundo (antiguo) entero. 

No es un caso que hoy en día, en todos los países del Mediterráneo (Norte de África y Europa del Sur en general) la gente tiene características similares, fruto de un intercambio biológico y cultural. Muchos libros nos hablan de los invasores Moros como gente intolerante, repulsiva, enemigos de los cristianos que imponían sus querer sin piedad para el populo dominado. Estas afirmaciones pueden ser ciertas, si no consideramos que atrás de la religión (que es la razón más grande porque los críticos están en desacuerdo) haya otras explicaciones que nos hacen entender el porqué de ciertos actos. El problemas de los críticos es que sufren mucho en aceptar  la importancia de Al Ándalus como parte de la historia de España. El símbolo de la tolerancia entre las varias religiones (musulmana, cristiana y judía), que a lo mejor en estos tiempos no podría ser aceptada tan fácil por diversas razones, permitió a los varios grupos que convivieron en Al Ándalus la posibilidad de conservar sus culto, hábitos, y leyes. La paciencia del populo conquistado permitió también de vivir años de tranquilidad, y en los años a seguir muchos árabes nacidos en la Península Ibérica pudieron adoptar sin ningún problema maneras y costumbres típicas de los “blancos”.

El desarrollo cultural de España llega a altos niveles gracias a la presentía de estos califas, que introducen una nueva lengua, la numerología, un nuevo estilo arquitectónico y sobre todo un nuevo estilo de vida.  Empiezan a aparecer nuevas escuelas, y sobretodo nace el entusiasmo de aprender de parte de los cristianos. La comunidades judías y cristianas entonces, no estaban tan en desacuerdo con los musulmanes, de hecho, están interesados en adoptar muchas practicas y normas de la sociedad en que se encontraban a vivir (Menocal). Árabes y Bereberes participarán con los cristianos de España a nuevas actividades culturales, que serán fundamentales en el progreso de la civilización Arabo-Hispánica. Los campesinos de esta regiones Ibéricas, en el tiempo de los Romanos Y Visigodos no tenían ningún derecho sobre sus tierras, pero con la venida de los Árabes, la política toma una desvuelta decisiva, y la gente común puede beneficiar de estos cambiamientos, así que esclavos venían tratados como miembros de la familia, y tal vez podían también casarse con las hijas de sus maestros. Los árabes entonces crearon un  reino capaz de poder administrarse sin distinciones sociales entre ellos y los conquistados, y gracias a esta capacidad funcionaria todos los ciudadanos conseguían beneficiar libremente de los privilegios que los árabes se prestaban a  ofrecer.

 En tema de religión, mucha gente no toleraba las maneras de los Visigodos, que muchas veces recorrían también a martirios y maltratamientos, y no titubearon cuando les se propuso de convertirse a la nueva religión Islámica, también porque los que eran musulmanes o se convertían, podían beneficiar de ulteriores favores. El número de los Hispánicos que se convierten es extraordinario, y llega tan rápida como la conquista de la península Ibérica desde los árabes. Los cristianos que in vez no adoptaron esta nueva religión, se enamoraron sin dudas, de la nueva cultura: muchos de ellos empiezan a aprender el árabe, las tradiciones, la cocina, las técnicas utilizadas para trabajar la tierra, y plantar árboles, y nuevas técnicas de irrigación que son aplicadas hasta hoy en día. Estos cristianos que abrazaron esta nueva tendencia cultural, cambiaron sus maneras de vivir, muy distinta de la precedente, y fueron llamados “mozárabes”. 

 Los reyes árabes tenían sus harems, y se saboreaban la vida.  En el castillo de Córdoba, Abderramán III se ocupaba de la vida política, de su gente, y también de su vida personal. Como nos cuenta Mark Jordan en su libro “Queen Iberia”,  Abderramán tenía dos harems: uno de mujeres y uno de hombres muy jóvenes. Básicamente el rey participó también  en prácticas sexuales con gente de su mismo sexo, y terminó con enamorarse de un niño de 13 años, llamado Pelagio. Para los cristianos era algo definitivamente escandaloso, mientras en la antología árabe, esto podría ser tranquilamente una historia de amor. Unos mozárabes, van a ser testigos de su martirio y muerte, y van a establecer la causa de la muerte del niño como causa religiosa. En verdad, la razón principal es de natura sexual. Abderramán esta tan enamorado del niño Pelagio, que quería su cuerpo, e intentó unos avances, pero viendo que Pelagio no entendía ceder, ofendido y enfuriado, el califa ordenó su muerte. El niño fue torturado, martiriado y en fin matado.

 Los cristianos afirmaron que atrás de todo esto estaba la voluntad de Abderramán en convertir el niño al Islam. Según mis interpretaciones se trata más de una situación personal entre el rey y el niño, y no tiene mucho a que ver la religión en este caso. Si se quiere examinar este problema de otro punto de vista, ósea religioso, creo que es increíble que tenemos solamente un caso símil, y que el evento no se repita otras veces contra de otros niños cristianos, y además Abderramán según los estudios profundos de algunos históricos, no parece llevar un odio particular contra los cristianos.  Algo que iba creciendo siempre más en este tiempo, in vez, eran los matrimonios entre convertidos al islam y musulmanes. Mucha gente en esta manera se olvido de sus verdaderas origines (cristianas para los religiosos, o árabe), y las razas se juntaron tan profundamente que era casi imposible identificar o reconocer elementos de caracterización étnica entre la gente que andaba creciendo y viviendo en el reino de  Al Ándalus.

Para lo que reguarda el aspecto global de lo que estaba sucediendo en Al Ándalus, los cristianos que vivieron bajo el domino árabe nunca renunciaron a tener contactos con el resto de los cristianos en el mundo (de hecho los árabes nunca les impidieron que lo hicieran). Además, tomaron una participación activa en la vida económica del país, mejorando los intercambios de productos entre los árabes, y los cristianos de otras partes de Europa, y otros estaban empleados en otros oficios, y eran considerados un núcleo importante en la estructura civil de las ciudades de Al Ándalus. Del otro lado, los árabes se tomaron el territorio que habían conquistado, transformándolo en un lugar vivible, gracias a la capacidad de saber adaptarse a cualquier lugar adonde ellos se encontraban, utilizando con grandes técnicas las potencialidades agrícolas y culturales que conocían.  La influencia de la España musulmana era muy sentida entre la gente de las fronteras de Norte (Cristianos) y Sur (Bereberes). La cultura Arabo-Hispánica se va a afirmar y continuara a sobrevivir en Europa también muchos años después de la expulsión de los musulmanes en la última ciudad de España, Granada, y en muchas condiciones  contribuyo al desarrollo de la civilización moderna de Europa.

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